Self-driving 自动驾驶 자율주행

2020-01-01 23:13:11
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Artificial Intelligence (Ai) gives cars the ability to see, think, learn and navigate a nearly infinite range of driving scenarios.

Self-driving technology holds the potential to greatly improve traffic safety and efficiency. It can also make you feel like a VIP everywhere you go.

Levels of driving

  • Level 0: Automated system issues warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control.
  • Level 1 (“hands on”): The driver and the automated system share control of the vehicle. Examples are systems where the driver controls steering and the automated system controls engine power to maintain a set speed (Cruise Control) or engine and brake power to maintain and vary speed (Adaptive Cruise Control or ACC); and Parking Assistance, where steering is automated while speed is under manual control. The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Lane Keeping Assistance (LKA) Type II is a further example of level 1 self-driving.
  • Level 2 (“hands off”): The automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. The shorthand “hands off” is not meant to be taken literally. In fact, contact between hand and wheel is often mandatory during level 2 driving, to confirm that the driver is ready to intervene.
  • Level 3 (“eyes off”): The driver can safely turn their attention away from the driving tasks, e.g. the driver can text or watch a movie. The vehicle will handle situations that call for an immediate response, like emergency braking. The driver must still be prepared to intervene within some limited time, specified by the manufacturer, when called upon by the vehicle to do so.
  • Level 4 (“mind off”): As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver may safely go to sleep or leave the driver’s seat. Self-driving is supported only in limited spatial areas (geofenced) or under special circumstances, like traffic jams. Outside of these areas or circumstances, the vehicle must be able to safely abort the trip, e.g. park the car, if the driver does not retake control.
  • Level 5 (“steering wheel optional”): No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.


  • L0:驾驶员完全掌控车辆。
  • L1 :自动系统有时能够辅助驾驶员完成某些驾驶任务。
  • L2 :自动系统能够完成某些驾驶任务,但驾驶员需要监控驾驶环境,完成剩余部分,同时保证出现问题,随时进行接管。在这个层级,自动系统的错误感知和判断有驾驶员随时纠正,大多数车企都能提供这个系统。L2可以通过速度和环境分割成不同的使用场景,如环路低速堵车、高速路上的快速行车和驾驶员在车内的自动泊车。
  • L3 :自动系统既能完成某些驾驶任务,也能在某些情况下监控驾驶环境,但驾驶员必须准备好重新取得驾驶控制权(自动系统发出请求时)。在该层级下,驾驶者仍无法进行睡觉或者深度的休息。
  • L4 :自动系统在某些环境和特定条件下,能够完成驾驶任务并监控驾驶环境;L4的部署,多数是基于城市的使用,可以是全自动的代客泊车,也可以是直接结合打车服务来做。这个阶段下,在自动驾驶可以运行的范围内,驾驶相关的所有任务和驾乘人已经没关系了,感知外界责任全在自动驾驶系统。
  • L5 :自动系统在所有条件下都能完成所有驾驶任务,完全不需要人工介入。

항공기와 선박은 오토파일럿 이란 이름으로 상당 부분 자동화가 진행되어 있다. 항공기와 선박의 경우, 좁은 공간에 밀집해 다니는 자동차와는 반대로 다른 항공기나 선박과 킬로미터 단위로 떨어진 상태로 다닌다. 또한, 하늘과 바다를 다니기 때문에 방해물이 거의 없어서 충돌사고가 발생할 가능성이 현저하게 낮다. 다만 항공기의 이착륙/선박의 입출항에서만큼은 근접한 항공기와 선박, 구조물 등을 확인해가며 진입해야하고, 돌발 변수의 발생 가능성도 높기 때문에 여전히 수동으로 진행된다.