6G 第六代移动通信 6세대 이동통신

2021-12-02 12:14:19
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6G is the sixth generation standard currently under development for wireless communications technologies supporting cellular data networks. It is the planned successor to 5G and will likely be significantly faster. Like its predecessors, 6G networks will probably be broadband cellular networks, in which the service area is divided into small geographical areas called cells.

6G networks are expected to exhibit even more heterogeneity (be even more diverse) than their predecessors and are likely to support applications beyond current mobile use scenarios, such as virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR), ubiquitous instant communications, pervasive intelligence and the Internet of Things (IoT). It is expected that mobile network operators will adopt flexible decentralized business models for 6G, with local spectrum licensing, spectrum sharing, infrastructure sharing, and intelligent automated management underpinned by mobile edge computing, artificial intelligence, short-packet communication and blockchain technologies.

  • Artificial intelligence and machine learning will play a major role both in the link and system-level solutions of 6G wireless networks.
  • Extended-spectrum towards THz will enable merging communications and new applications, such as 3D imaging and sensing.
  • New access methods will be needed for truly massive machine-type communications. Modulation and duplexing schemes beyond Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) must be developed and possibly it is time to start looking at analog types of modulation at THz frequencies.
  • It predicts a shift in user devices from smartphones toward wearable devices (particularly lightweight glasses) having virtual, augmented, or mixed reality capability. The necessary supporting technologies include:
    • imaging devices such as light field, panoramic, depth-sensing, and high-speed cameras;
    • biosensors for monitoring health conditions such as the heart rate, blood pressure, and neural activity;
    • specialized processors for computer graphics, computer vision, sensor fusion, machine learning, and AI, either in the device or in the surrounding network infrastructure;
  • The concept of semantic communications (using the meaning of the messages for making the connectivity and networking more efficient), is an important emerging area of research which is closely connected to semantic AI.
  • Autonomous vehicles are made possible by advances in wireless networks and in distributed AI and sensing. Each vehicle in a future network will be equipped with many sensors, including cameras, laser scanners, possibly THz arrays for 3D imaging, odometry, and inertial measurement units.
  • It is believed that to make 6G acceptable to society, the protection of private information will be a key enabler to realize its full potential. The secrecy is ensured through quantum mechanics instead of complex computation. Furthermore, authentication by a physical layer signature, such as RF fingerprinting, and some other technologies, such as randomization of MIMO transmission coefficients, coding, etc., could potentially be used in 6G.
  • In addition to the terrestrial networks, infrastructures based on satellite and unmanned aerial vehicles (or similar aerial platforms) will be needed to support the coverage and capacity requirements.

5G vs 6G

Comparison of some of the Key Performance Indicators

Peak data rate (Download) 20Gbps 100Gbps ~ 1Tbps
Radio Latency (User Plane) Less than 1ms 0.1ms
Density 1 device per m2 100 devices per m2
Traffic Increase 1000 times 10,000 times

Technology-wise comparison

5G 6G
Terahertz spectrum and RF Devices Improvements No Yes
Satellite (non-terrestrial) communication techniques Yes Yes
Artificial Intelligence/Machine learning Probable Yes
Semantic communication No Yes
Analog modulation techniques No Yes
Single-frequency full-duplex Systems No Yes

6G预计将在2030年左右上市。6G使用至太赫兹(THz) 频段的传输能力,比5G提升1000倍bps(1T),网络延迟也从毫秒(1ms)降到微秒级(100µs)。

2030년쯤 실현될 것으로 예측되는 6G는 초당 100기가비트(100Gbps) 이상의 전송속도를 구현할 것으로 예상된다. 5G 이동통신 최대 속도 20Gbps보다 5배 빠르다.

한국전자통신연구원(ETRI)은 테라헤르츠(THz) 대역 주파수를 이용한 초고속 무선 백홀 시스템 개발에 착수했다. THz 주파수는 100GHz~10THz 사이 대역으로 ETRI는 200GHz 대역에서 통신 가능한 기술을 개발한다. THz 주파수로 100Gbps 무선 통신 기술을 개발하는 건 국내 최초다.

6G는 전파의 범위가 넓어지는 것 외에, 수중통신이 가능하게 된다. 중국은 상용화 목표 시기를 2027년으로 앞당길 수도 있다고 주장한다. 6G의 이론적 다운속도는 초당 1TB에 달하며 이를 통해 만물인터넷(IoE) 시대를 실현할 수 있게 될 것이다.

2030年ごろに実現すると予測される6Gは、毎秒100ギガビット(100Gbps)以上の伝送速度を実現すると予想される。 5G移動通信最大速度20Gbpsより5倍速い。

韓国電子通信研究院(ETRI)はテラヘルツ(THz)帯域周波数を利用した超高速無線バックホールシステムの開発に着手した。 THz周波数は100GHz〜10THzの間の帯域で、ETRIは200GHz帯で通信可能な技術を開発しています。 THz周波数で100Gbpsの無線通信技術を開発するのは国内初だ。

6Gは電波の範囲が広がるほか、水中通信が可能になる。 中国は商用化目標時期を2027年に引き上げることもできると主張する。 6Gの理論的ダウン速度は毎秒1TBに達し、これにより万物インターネット(IoE)時代を実現できるようになるだろう。